Alopecia areata is a common condition characterized by circular or total loss of hair on the scalp and beard in men. It is a cell-mediated immune reaction in which no destruction of hair follicles is observed.
Causes of Alopecia areata
According to modern dermatology, alopecia areata is an immune reaction that manifests itself with a lymphocytic infiltrate around the hair follicles. Inflammatory cells secrete Th1 cytokines, including interferon gamma, interleukin 1b and 2. The disease is sometimes associated with other autoimmune diseases, and in children with various forms of atopy. A genetic predisposition is observed in 20-25% of patients. Chronic focal infection in the head and neck region is often observed.
In addition to the classic clinical picture, there are some rarer variants of the disease:
- Diffuse alopecia areata – large areas of the scalp are affected, without distinct circular fields being visible. This variant usually progresses to the total form.
- Ophiasis – in this clinical variant, the per
- Alopecia totalis – loss of all scalp hair.
- Alopecia universalis - loss of all hair, including body hair.
Symptoms of classic alopecia areata
The changes most often affect the hairs in the scalp area. Patients complain of the sudden appearance of one or more rounded fields as a result of rapid hair loss in the same area. Redness of the skin is sometimes observed. Characteristically, the structure of hair follicles is not affected. If, when trying to remove a hair from the alopecia area, this happens easily, it refers to an active form of the disease and the plaque has a tendency to grow. If the hairs are resistant to pulling, the disease is most likely stationary.
Alopecia areata of the beard
In men, alopecia areata can affect hair in the beard area. The disease has the same dynamics as in cases where the scalp is involved. Single fields are more common than multiple involvement. Redness of the underlying skin is uncharacteristic.
The diagnosis is made mainly on the basis of the observed clinical finding. It is important to differentiate from the other types of alopecia and mainly from those that occur with damage to the hair follicles and lead to permanent hair loss. In the course of the diagnostic process, it may be necessary to conduct various consultations and tests to rule out the presence of a chronic infection in the head and neck area.
Therapy of alopecia areata
Creams - moderately and highly potent corticosteroids are prescribed for local administration. Their anti-inflammatory effect is used.
Garlic – there is no medical proof of its efficacy. The positives in the treatment of alopecia areata with garlic are explained by its vasodilatory effect, which improves blood circulation in the treated area.
Diet for alopecia areata – There is no known medically relevant information on the benefits of following a particular dietary regimen.
Examination at a dermatologist in Sofia
If you notice circular fields in the area of the scalp or beard with hair loss, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist. In clinic Dr. Stavrov Aesthetics diagnoses and treats various skin and venereal diseases. Our address is the city of Sofia, g.k. Manastirski livadi - west, Prof. Velizar Velkov St. 36 (behind Pulse fitness center). See how to find us on the contact page.
Course and prognosis
When the underlying cause is discovered, as well as with correct and timely therapy, the prognosis is favorable because there is no damage to the structure of the hair follicles. Full recovery from alopecia areata can take from several weeks to months, which requires you to arm yourself with a little patience.